What would the geologist be able to deduce about the world we live in, based on what was left in the strata?
Stratigraphy started to become a formal science due to the work of a man who published under the name Nicolaus Steno in the 17th century.
The chemical composition of Earth's crust has similarities with other stony planets, with silicate-rich rocks being dominant in most locations on the surface.
In addition, basic geologic principles can be applied to resolving the order of events leading to the formation of rocks and landscape features. Cross Sections - interpretations of vertical views of geologic features below the surface.
This principle presumes that the oldest layer of a stratigraphic sequence will be on the bottom and the most recent, or youngest, will be on the top.
The earliest-known hominids in East Africa are often found in very specific stratigraphic contexts that have implications for their relative dating.
This also works with stone tools which are found abundantly at different sites and across long periods of time.
Basic chemistry is important to all sciences, especially geology!
The most common relative dating method is stratigraphy.
Other methods include fluorine dating, nitrogen dating, association with bones of extinct fauna, association with certain pollen profiles, association with geological features such as beaches, terraces and river meanders, and the establishment of cultural seriations.
Steno made careful geologic observations and illustrations.
He published the results of his work and established a basic set of principles for interpreting sedimentary strata.